In the business world (at least in our experience), collaboration is critical for growth. Regardless of the size of an organization or industry, forming strategic alliances can significantly enhance business performance, bolster innovation, and provide growth opportunities. We see it every day. Think about how Prime Video now markets other platforms like Paramount+ through its app. This is just one mere example of a teaming relationship.

There are several mechanisms through which businesses can collaborate, three of which we will explore in this blog post: subcontracting, joint ventures, and mentor-protégé relationships. Each method offers unique benefits and challenges, and understanding these can help businesses make informed decisions about their strategic partnerships.

It’s also important to note here that there are multiple layers to each of the below, and this blog will merely scrape the surface. Consortiums and co-branding have become more prevalent recently, especially among young entrepreneurs.

Subcontracting: The Power of Delegation

Subcontracting is a contractual relationship where a primary contractor hires a second party, the subcontractor, to perform a part or all of its contractual obligations. It is prevalent in industries such as construction, where the general contractor might subcontract specialized tasks like plumbing or electrical work to other companies with specific expertise in those areas.

Benefits of subcontracting include the ability to leverage specialized skills, manage complex projects efficiently, and mitigate risk. For instance, a primary contractor can focus on its core competencies, leaving specialized tasks to subcontractors who are experts in those areas. However, subcontracting also presents challenges like dependency on other organizations and potential quality control issues. Therefore, prime contractors must establish robust contracts and maintain good relationships with subcontractors.

If you will be a subcontractor or hire them for federal contracting opportunities, ensure that agreement is in place before the bid! Look ahead at planned acquisitions and choose your prime contractors strategically, small businesses. Be aware of the Limitations on Subcontracting, as well. There have been some recent changes to set-aside contracts, which indicate that being out of compliance could affect CPARS. Check out this blog from SmallGovCon for more information on this new rule.

Joint Ventures: The Strength of Unity

A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which two or more parties agree to combine forces to compete for government contracts. In a joint venture, each participant is responsible for profits, losses, and costs associated with the JV, though it is entirely separate. A JV even requires its own System for Award Management (SAM) registration and is considered a separate entity in the eyes of the federal government for a period of two years.

Joint ventures offer a way for businesses to share risks and rewards, access new markets and technologies, and combine resources and expertise for larger projects. For example, two companies might form a JV to enter a foreign market where one of the companies already has a presence.

Despite these advantages, joint ventures also come with potential challenges, including conflicts of interest, cultural clashes if the partners are from different countries, and difficulties in management and decision-making. A JV could be compared to a “marriage” – we don’t typically get married after the first date.

Mentor-Protégé Relationships: Harnessing the Power of Guidance

In a mentor-protégé relationship, an experienced business (the mentor) provides guidance, resources, and support to a less experienced company (the protégé). This relationship is common in programs designed to help small businesses, disadvantaged businesses, or businesses owned by veterans or minorities. For instance, the U.S. Small Business Administration runs a Mentor-Protégé Program (MPP) to help small businesses compete more effectively. Other agencies also have their own MPPs, such as the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

The primary benefit of a mentor-protégé relationship is knowledge transfer. Protégés gain industry knowledge, business development strategies, and other guidance to help them grow. In return, mentors can gain access to new markets, increased capacity, and potential future business partners. However, these relationships can also bring challenges, like the likely dependency of the protégé on the mentor or the risk that the mentor might take advantage of the relationship.

Like anything else in government contracting, deciding which MPP to pursue widely depends on which agencies buy what you sell. Be sure to do your research first because working your way up to this point with a prime contractor can take extensive time. The SBA provides a list of existing MPP agreements on their website and the agreement template.


Subcontracting, joint ventures, and mentor-protégé relationships offer various ways for businesses to collaborate and achieve shared goals. Each model has unique advantages and potential challenges, and the choice of model depends on factors like the nature of the project, the business’s capabilities, and the market dynamics. By understanding these teaming mechanisms, companies can better navigate their strategic partnerships and drive their growth and success.

Remember, collaboration is more than just a strategic move; it’s a journey of shared growth, learning, and mutual success. So, choose your partners wisely, set clear expectations, and invest in building strong, productive relationships.